The current aim of blu-ray and HD-DVD is to get as much public support quickly as ultimately it is the consumer who will decide which format comes out on top. With the unification talks failing it is up to you to make the decision of which format to adopt. To help you with this tough decision is the lowdown on how each format matches below. HistoryThe blu-ray formats head companies are Sony and Philips with Toshiba and Hitachi heading up the HD-DVD format. This situation isnt the first time where these two sides have gone at each other with opposing formats. The DVD format was born from the co-operation of the Multimedia Compact Disc from Sony/Philips (MMCD) and the Super Density Disc (SD) from Toshiba. Though it ended well for the consumer with the DVD format being widely adopted and becoming the new standard, it was Toshibas camp who came out on top in regards to royalties.This led to the work on new formats by both sides with Sony aiming to regain some of its lost market. The two projects though had been in production but not really going anywhere at the time. Sonys Professional Disc for Data (PDD) became the blu-ray format while Toshibas Advanced Optical Disc becoming HD-DVD. This leads us back to the original situation where there are two competing formats with a unification looking a lot less likely.TechnicalBoth "blu-ray and HD-DVD" use a wavelength of 405nm however the smaller track pitch on blu-ray (see Blu-ray Disc) allows more information to be squeezed on and so gives the larger capacity. However it is the differing track pitch that makes these two formats incompatible. The surface layer of the two is different also as HD-DVD uses a 0.6mm layer similar to DVD whereas blu-ray uses a 0.1mm clear plastic layer.This difference is the main reason why costs are higher with blu-ray. Costly production methods are needed to be able to make the discs and a hard coating must be applied to make the discs suitably resilient to dust and fingerprints. CapacityBlu-ray currently offers discs in 25gb for single layer and 50gb for dual layer. However TDK has started work on a 200gb disc which is 6x33gb layers.HD-DVD comes in 15gb for the single layer and 30gb for the dual layer. Best tests so far have achieved 45gb but 60gb is the theoretical limit. This shows that the maximum for HD-DVD is only 10gb more than what blu-ray can already offer. CodecsBoth formats use the same codecs to play video as they are both able to play standard and high-definition. This means that MPEG-2, Microsoft Video Codec 1 (aka VC1, WMV HD, etc.) and H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC are all supported on both formats. SecurityBoth blu-ray and HD-DVD have to make use of HDCP encrypted output and the Advanced Access Content System (AACS). Both HDCP and AACS are mandatory for any discs with HD video.Blu-ray also incorporates ROM-Mark watermarking technology and BD dynamic crypto which generates special keys for batches of discs.HD-DVD uses a similar system in the Volume Identifying technology. SupportBoth formats are heavily supported in both the Consumer Electronics (CE) and Information Technology (IT) industries. However blu-ray has a better portion of the big name movie and game studios supporting it which is essential for there to be a ready amount of content at launch. See below for the list of Supporting studios: Blu-ray20th Century FoxBuena Vista Home EntertainmentElectronic ArtsMGM StudiosParamount PicturesSony Pictures EntertainmentThe Walt Disney CompanyVivendi Universal GamesWarner Bros.HD-DVDBuena Vista Home EntertainmentNew Line CinemaParamount PicturesThe Walt Disney CompanyUniversal StudiosWarner Bros.Josh Biggs is the founder of Blu-ray-review.co.uk which gives the visitor a resource for all the latest blu-ray news and product reviews with community discussion.
We would have been still constructing the Panama Canal but for the modern gigantic construction equipments. These Herculean machines made life easy for us by their enormous strengths and capacities for long drawn heavy duties under all torturous conditions.To think that these engineering marvels work for reclaiming lands from bays, striking piles into the hard sea beds or drilling tunnels deep below the sea beds (Trans European Tunnel connecting England to France), is mind boggling. The list can go endless but for the scope of this article which is limited.Equipments to Suit All NeedsConstruction equipments may be classified as per needs and further by capacities.1. Excavating and Earth moving: These gigantic machines are hydraulically operated to safeguard from shock failures. These are the first machines to be employed for preparing the construction sites. Land leveling by digging and cutting terrains are done by excavators of appropriate capacities which run into 1000s of HP. Basic earth movers include dozers, tippers and loaders.2. Concrete processors: Batch or continuous concrete mixers are computer programmed for consistent precise mix. These are stationed permanently near the site or in the factory depending on convenience. Small batch mixers of less than one quintal capacities are portable. The concrete is transported from far off plants in transit mixers of minimum capacity 6 cubic meters by volume. Concrete is poured to the spot using concrete pumps.3. Bar bending machines: Small high torque generating bar bending machines are handy in bending and forming construction steel bars. These are available in various specifications.4. Rollers and compactors: Rollers are employed to compact the ground after dozers have leveled it. Some rollers are also equipped with vibrating compactors eliminating the need for separate compacting. For small areas like indoors vibrating plate compactors, which generate up to 1000kgf maybe used.These are just about the equipments fundamentally required for construction of homes and offices.Road ConstructionFor road construction, depending on whether the road is being asphalted or concretized, the equipments change. Asphalt mixers and asphalt pavers take-up the job of road laying to perfection.Concrete road pavers, although work on similar principle, cant finish the road-laying as concrete needs setting time. There is a need for faster laying technique. Road surface finishing is by a technique called VDF, which stands for vacuum dewatered flooring. Smoother finishes are given by power trowels and anti skid finishes by brooms, mechanized or manual.
If you're in the process of setting up a home office, you're not alone. There's a growing trend in the U.S. to achieve a better work/life balance; in fact, the home worker and telecommuting population is expected to grow to 40 million U.S. workers by 2010, according to JALA International and the International Telework Association and Council. Many of these home-based businesses or telecommuters will not have access to regular IT support and need some tips on how to make the best decisions.Do More In Less SpaceWhen outfitting a home office, home workers should consider technology that is versatile and easy to set up and maintain without compromising valuable desktop space. While computers are an essential component of the typical home-office arrangement, home workers also need to consider other essentials such as printers, faxes or scanners. You may find that moving to a multifunction printer, also known as an MFP or an All-in-One, offers the convenience of having everything in a single device and a small "footprint" that is home-office friendly.MFPs allow you to do more in-house; the ability to print, fax, copy and scan saves time by reducing the number of trips to the print shop, which results in time you can spend building your business. For instance, HP estimates that businesses are able to save 20 to 40 percent over the combined cost of four single-function products.Look "Beyond The Box"While the device you choose is important, it's equally important to look beyond the box and assess supplies, services and support to get the most out of your home-office experience. All technical products, including printers, should come with access to support the way you want it: via phone or online. Replacing supplies can be time intensive, especially if you are caught without ink or toner and you're on deadline. Look for a printer that offers automatic alerts when the toner or ink is low and reminds you to replenish before you run out.To keep your printer humming along, investigate options for warranties. If the printer can't be fixed, does your manufacturer offer a one-time replacement? For example, HP offers a service option that provides for a one-time complete replacement of any covered printer, as well as telephone support.Outfitting your home office with essential technology needed to run your business is an important decision that need not be a painstaking process. With the right equipment, your only worry will be your business.Check It Out: Before you set up shop, assess your printing needs, such as quantity of paper. Will you need to fax? Scan? Do you require color?
Computers are a very important part of our society, both in a business environment and personally. Having a home computer has been very common for both fun and work purposes. It is common to have pictures saved on your computer as well as some of your financial information. Losing data due to a virus or computer crash can be devastating. The process of recovering all that information is very time consuming and expensive.In many such instances the data is simply lost forever. If you have important information that you dont want to be without you need to protect yourself now. Too many people wait to invest in an external backup drive until after they have experienced such a loss. You will find them readily available for desktop and laptop computers. With an external backup drive, the data isnt physically stored on your computer system. You will use a type of zip disk to store the information on. Make sure you label the disks accordingly so that you know what is on each one of them. Should you not be able to retrieve the original information that is on your computer you will be able to pull out these disks and continue using your data.The cost of the hardware for an external backup drive depends on what brand you purchase. It also depends on the amount of storage space you need it to have. Generally you want it to have as much storage space or more than your computer does. However, the investment is generally very minimal and you will find it to be well worth it. Just one problem with your computer will cost you more than a backup drive for data retrieval and the time to try to piece together or redo the information that you have lost. It is a good idea to invest in good quality disks for the external backup drive as well. You dont want to purchase cheap disks and then realize that the information cant be retrieved from them either due to poor manufacturing. Take your time to find an external backup drive that is affordable, offers plenty of storage space, and is easy to install and use. In most instances you can install the external back up drive in less than an hour. This includes downloading and installing the necessary software for it to operate. Once it is in place you can just make a few clicks to save information to the disks as a back up resource. Being able to rely on your computer for a variety of tasks is what makes them such an important part of our society. Be prepared for the unexpected though and always use an external backup drive to protect your data. This is a much easier process than having the nightmare of trying to piece back what data you can retrieve and having to do without the rest of it. You never know when your computer will experience a problem or be the target of a virus. Dont let these issues cause you time, money, or frustration.
For a long time Intel has been leading the market in processor sales and popularity but AMD is finally putting a stop to that. With the release of their Athlon 64 processor, with 64 bit computing capabilities, they have been slowly but surely regaining the market back from Intel. The Athlon 64 processors have been around for a while now and they have proven themselves the market leaders in processing power. As we know AMD processor run at a lot slower speeds than Intel processors making them cooler to run. This has eliminated the need for expensive cooling equipment and opened the doorway for overclocking.Although AMD hit the target by releasing their 64 bit processor long before Intel did, they are not standing still. They have been constantly upgrading their line up to increase speed and efficiency. This is apparent with their fx series processors and their dual core processors.The fx series processor are the king of the hill at AMD. They are the most powerful processor that is available. They show blistering speeds for CPU intensive functions such video encoding and gaming. They also show great performance in database driven work and most other aspects of computing.The dual-core line of processor are the ultimate in multi-tasking. They provide the power of two processor running in unison while still being able to fit in a single processor motherboard. Although these processors are essentially two processors in one, they are rather pricy and may not be everyones cup of tea.Intel is trying to fight back by forming an alliance with Apple. All macs are now available with Intel processors. Whether this will be profitable for Intel only time will tell.With competition growing stronger from AMD this can only mean increased benefits for the consumer. As the war between Intel and AMD intensifies, the consumer will benefit from lowered prices, and increased quality in their processors.